Car Parks & Parking Structures

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Car Parks – Multi-Storey Parking Decks

Multi-Storey Car Parks - Parking Decks

Multi-storey car parks are an integral part of modern city life and the car park owners and operators increasingly realise that they must be clean, safe, and welcoming to attract and retain our custom wherever we have a choice of where to park our cars. A key element of deck waterproofing in addition to preventing deterioration of the reinforced concrete structural frame and parking deck slabs, is to prevent water ingress through the decks. This is because any leaks can quickly lead to unsightly damp slippery floors below, soon followed by the leaching damaging alkaline salts which can drip onto the paintwork of cars parked beneath, then attack and discolour it, which soon leads to expensive claims.

As a result, everybody has an interest in preventing water and de-icing salt penetration in or through car park decks – Car Park Owners, Operators, and the Users.


The potential damage and deterioration that water and water borne salt ingress can cause for the car park structure, the dangerous conditions created for pedestrians and the damage caused to car paintwork – all result in considerable additional costs and claims (then more costs) for the Owners and Operators. In addition, all of this causes considerable inconvenience and time and effort for the users to handle these situations, to process and mitigate their claims and recover from any injury as well.

The importance of providing a reliable deck waterproofing system, including watertight sealed joints and a durable wearing surface, for new multi-storey car parks and in their refurbishments, has been recognised and greatly increased in significance for car park designers in recent years. This is an area where NCC’s resin flooring experts have the technical expertise and practical experience to support and assist you in the successful completion of your car park projects. From the condition survey in refurbishment, to key design considerations for new build, our team provide support from the design office, through the full integrated deck waterproofing and engineered joint sealing system design, with CAD detailing solutions, to selecting the right specialist contractor and ensuring quality control on site, right through to completion and handover.

Car Park Deck Waterproofing System Requirements:

The selection of the most appropriate deck waterproofing and wearing surface system is dependent on the existing condition of the structure and the decks, any previous surfacing treatments, their anticipated future level of use and exposure, plus the economic constraints and now increasingly there are now also demands for the sustainability of the deck waterproofing products.

NCC resin flooring experts can help you to make the right decisions in assessing your car park’s condition and deck waterproofing requirements, then in selecting, specifying, and installing the most appropriate and cost-effective resin-based systems. This applies equally to new car parking structures and to the refurbishment and upgrading of existing car parks, including the different areas within them both, where special considerations and potentially different treatments may also be required i.e. on the ramps, the turning circles and on the externally exposed top decks.

The other key factor in deck waterproofing is always the time available to do all the works required and get the cars parking on the finished surface once again. This obviously has financial and disruption implications and so must always be a major part of the car park deck waterproofing system selection process – For example is the time available to allow cementitious repairs or for new concrete to fully dry out – or indeed is there only the shortest window of opportunity meaning that a spray applied fast-curing Polyurea systems (from VIP GmbH) – will be the only viable solution, with the other criteria adapted to allow rapid installation and return to service. Please refer to the Polyurea Resin Flooring page) – link please Jojo of this website for more specific information on this technology and approach.

If you would like help and assistance with your specific car park deck requirements, please call 01257 266696 and one of our specialists will assist you.


There are several important differences between the key deck waterproofing and wearing surface requirements for the most suitable deck systems for new and refurbishment multi-storey car park projects:

Deck Waterproofing Systems for New Car Parking Structures

In a new multi-storey car parking structure the reinforced concrete decks will normally tend to be flat and level, recently laid to the correct falls, without any serious / extensive surface defects, damage, or contamination, and the movement joints are usually correctly located. Therefore the concrete deck surfaces can easily and economically be mechanically prepared as necessary, ready to accept the selected protective deck waterproofing and wearing surface system (vacuum blastcleaning is usually the best method of carrying this out). This surface preparation results in a sandpaper -like, uniform surface texture that is ideal to accept the deck waterproofing and wearing surface systems. The deck waterproofing systems for new car park decks are normally BS 8204: Types 4 to 6 and from 1 – 5mm thickness, according to the different decks and areas of the deck’s exposure levels and the owner’s specific requirements.

Deck Waterproofing Systems for Existing Car Parking Structures

With existing car parking structures a professional Condition Survey must always be undertaken to determine the precise nature and extent of any damage or defects. Any structural damage or defects must be repaired and rectified / made good prior to the deck coating works, before they can be successfully undertaken and provide the owner with a durable and waterproof wearing surface.

Existing concrete car park decks are frequently contaminated and damaged, sometimes severely, plus the concrete surfaces will have been attacked and their profile increased and roughened by scaling due to freeze-thaw damage. This is accelerated by de-icing salts brought into the structure on vehicles or used to maintain car and pedestrian safety during the winter on vehicle access ramps and turning areas, plus the pedestrian walkways and stairs.

As a result of this damage, exposure and spillages in service, the concrete deck surfaces of existing car parks will generally need more aggressive preparation and cleaning than is required foron new car park decks, in order to remove any contaminated, damaged, or deteriorated concrete and clean the surfaces, prior to application of the new deck waterproofing system. Therefore, this mechanical preparation (using vacuum blastcleaning techniques where possible due to its overall effectiveness and efficiency) will necessarily have to be harsher and more aggressive than would be required on new concrete surfaces. This will result in a greater profile depth and roughness, which in turn will need to be made good and levelled as an additional operation prior to, or as part of the new deck waterproofing and wearing surface system application.

At a minimum, this additional surface profile will greatly increase the consumption of the priming and / or intermediate resin coating materials that are required to provide a uniform surface, ready for application of the waterproofing / wearing layer. This is particularly important where the deck waterproofing system must be designed with crack-bridging properties to accommodate thermal movement i.e. for top decks exposed to direct sunlight and the different seasonal weather conditions, , as crack-bridging performance is directly related to the thickness and uniformity of the elastic layer.

It is also common in car park refurbishment and upgrading works, to discover that the existing parking deck levels and falls to drainage outlets, are inadequate and these should also be made good and adequate falls created for the drainage system. Any small cracks in the concrete surface must be sealed, and for any larger cracks, the structural significance must be confirmed by the responsible engineer, and then eliminated by suitable structural strengthening. Alternatively the potential movement should be accommodated as additional expansion joints brought through the new deck waterproofing system, as and where directed by the responsible structural engineer.

The potential for future surface cracking due to thermal movement and vibration can be accommodated in the new deck waterproofing system and wearing course, by using a flexible and crack-bridging deck waterproofing system. Broken or damaged joint arrises will also frequently need repair and reforming. For detailed guidance on how to repair and make good all these problems and damage, please visit our ‘Floor Repairs' page. This page also provides more information and details on the treatment of cracks in the floors and repairs to the joint arrises.

All these factors can have a considerable effect on the durability of refurbishing parking structures and the intended service life of the new deck waterproofing system. If the structural frame, deck and joint arris repairs are not correctly designed and carried out, then the new waterproofing system will not perform, and the future integrity of the structure will potentially be compromised. However as all these different repair requirements can make a huge difference in the overall cost of the car park refurbishment, NCC recommend obtaining a professional evaluation of the works required, including fully costed alternative solutions using ‘life-cycle costing’. This is to obtain a clear view and fully evaluate different professional options and then to specify and schedule the most appropriate refurbishment solutions.

Areas for ‘Special Care & Consideration’ on Car Park Decks:

There are some important areas of all reinforced concrete decked car parks that will always require ‘Special Care & Consideration’ and usually they should receive additional or alternative treatments in both new construction and refurbishment works. These include:

Car Park Ramp Waterproofing Systems:

The ramps for access into, up, around, and out of a car park are potentially always subject to increased mechanical abrasion and vibration from traffic; they are at least partially externally exposed to weathering and rainwater; they will collect de-icing salts from vehicles entering the car park – in addition to any salt used by the car park operator; plus they can have complex / substantial movement in joints connecting the ramp areas with the rest of the support structure and the parking decks. Therefore car park ramps always demand special consideration and treatment to ensure watertightness and durability. Generally this will mean using tougher grades, or increased thicknesses of the deck waterproofing system in the ramp areas.

The application of flow applied resin deck waterproofing materials on a slope can be problematic due to the resin products being designed with excellent ‘flow’ characteristics that are an important advantage on ‘flat’ areas like the parking decks themselves. Therefore it is important to select and specify a ramp surface waterproofing system with a sufficiently thixotropic nature for slump-free application, including when this is to be broadcast with the necessary aggregates to build up the system on the slope of the ramps, where it must also still maintain its required level of abrasion resistance and crack-bridging properties. NCC resin flooring specialists can advise you on all aspects of the selection and installation of the waterproofing system on the ramps and associated areas that require this special consideration.

Deck Waterproofing for Turning Circle Areas

The reasons for special consideration of the Turning Circles on a car park deck are similar to those for the car park ramps, usually apart from the slope. Dependant on the design of the car park and the size (radius) of the turning circles, these areas are usually subject to increased dynamic load and mechanical stress from the traffic, such as those imparted from the power steering, braking and indeed acceleration forces from modern cars with high-grip and low-profile performance tyres, which will again require tougher grades, or increased thicknesses of the deck waterproofing system in defined turning circle areas. Our experience at NCC is that this level of additional stress and loading will usually be somewhere between the performance of systems that are appropriate for the general parking decks and that is required for the ramps. The additional system performance requirement must therefore be clearly defined and then detailed in the specifications for the deck waterproofing works.

Waterproofing Externally Exposed Car Park Decks

In addition to the requirements and performance demands for parking decks, externally exposed and partially exposed decks will obviously also have external weathering exposure to consider. Exposure to the elements means that these decks are also going to be subject to high levels of thermal movement, thermal shock, and UV light radiation. Therefore the anticipated effects of this exposure on the structure, the decks and the potential deck waterproofing system must be fully considered, so the appropriate additional requirements can be defined, and the deck waterproofing system adapted/selected and detailed for these areas of the project.

Waterproofing Below Ground Car Park Decks

Below ground parking decks and to a lesser degree, parking decks at the ground floor level without lower parking-levels, can all be subject to potential water and/or water vapour penetration from below. This is also a risk when there are inadequate or damaged waterproofing membranes and/or drainage systems in the structural foundations and build-up below these decks.

There are two options to minimize any risk of resin flooring systems used as the deck surfacing systems, from blistering and delaminating due to vapour pressure and osmotic blistering, either:

- A vapour permeable deck waterproofing and wearing surface system should be selected if this is possible e.g. in new construction and where there is limited traffic and no crack-bridging requirements.

- Or…..

- A suitable impregnation and/or moisture barrier must be applied to the prepared concrete surface, which is used as an additional priming and pre-sealing surface treatment, that then enables the specified water and vapour-tight, resin-based deck waterproofing system build-up to be applied as normal.

Parking Decks Over Residential and Commercial Premises

When parking decks are located directly above residential or commercial premises there are several additional criteria to consider, such as incorporating thermal insulation above, within or below the concrete deck slabs to consider. There is also no easy future access to the deck soffit for any inspection and maintenance, so any future water ingress would cause severe disruption and no doubt be extremely expensive to repair.

Therefore in these situations it is always prudent to ‘err on the side of caution’ and always ensure that an extremely high performance, tough and abrasion resistant, crack-bridging, and durable deck waterproofing and wearing system is used; in addition to ensuring secure, watertight sealing of any associated expansion / movement joints too. This can mean that in these areas the deck waterproofing system should be deliberately over-designed, even for standard parking deck areas that would otherwise be non-exposed or intermediate decks in the structure. This is of course because of the potential for serious disruption and cost in the event of any leaks, even minor ones. The disruption and consequential damages over residential and commercial premises can be very punitive to everybody involved.

If you would like help and assistance with your specific parking deck waterproofing project, then please call 01257 266696 and one of our specialists will assist you.

Key Criteria for the Deck Waterproofing System:

The following may not be exhaustive and/or each criteria may not be necessary for each specific structure, but this summary is intended as a Guide and Summary of the main requirements, conditions and exposure that should be considered when defining the most important performance requirements to select the most appropriate deck waterproofing system and details for your project. These criteria include:

Structural / Non-Structural Cracks in the Concrete Decks:

Are there any cracks in the concrete deck? – Are they in the top surface of the deck and if access is possible, are they also visible in the bottom of the deck slabs on the soffits i.e. do the cracks go right through the deck? Are the cracks of structural significance and what has originally caused them? Are the cracks still moving due to traffic vibration or other stress and loading for example? If so by how much are they moving and do these cracks in the reinforced concrete slabs have any structural significance?

- Important structural engineering note: For any crack or situation with structural or potential structural significance, then a suitably qualified and experienced Structural Engineer must be consulted for advice. (Please also refer to the 'Thermal Movement in Parking Decks’ section below).

Joints in the Structural Concrete Decks:

Is there adequate joint movement capability in the Movement Joints in the deck to accommodate the anticipated levels of thermal movement, dynamic loading, and any other anticipated movement of the deck? How have all the different types of joints i.e. Daywork joints, Construction joints and Isolation joints etc., as well as any Structural Movement and Expansion Joints, been designed in the reinforced concrete decks? Have they been correctly located, dimensioned, and previously treated / sealed? Are these all securely and safely sealed for the future, or is there additional treatment and watertight sealing of the joints required now – before or after application of the resin deck waterproofing system build-up…..?

Wherever there is any concern over the capability or capacity of movement joints to accommodate the anticipate movement then a suitably qualified and experienced Structural Engineer must be consulted for advice and it is also useful for owners and specifiers to refer to the Emseal NCC Joint Sealing approach on the ‘Floor Joint Systems’ page. of this website.

Drainage in and Around the Parking Decks:

Is there adequate provision for rainwater collection, drainage, and removal from the structure? How have the drainage details been incorporated into the deck and sealed at their junctions with any existing or proposed deck waterproofing membrane? Is there evidence of past or current ‘ponding’ of standing water on the deck surface? i.e. Are there adequate falls for the required drainage requirements, or must additional work be carried out to create or reinstate these falls? This deck levelling work will normally be carried out after the removal of any damaged or deteriorated existing screeds or failed traditional waterproofing materials, and any structural repairs have been completed. The deck repairs and screeding to reinstate suitable drainage falls, including resetting gullies and channels etc., should be made with suitable cementitious materials when there is time to allow full curing; however, when time is short and therefore time is likely also money, then faster setting and hardening, resin-based repair mortars and screeds are the best choice.

Note: In colder winter temperatures repairs can also be made using MMA (methyl-methacrylate resin mortars, which can be used below 0°C, though these have several limitations, including ice prevention and their surface tension, so specialist use and control is necessary.

Deck Waterproofing Systems - Vapour Permeability:

Is the reinforced concrete parking deck below ground level or at ground level and if so, is there a secure and intact damp-proof membrane (DPM) installed between the concrete structure and the ground?

Are there any water supply or drainage pipes in or below the basement or ground floor parking deck? If so, are these all intact, or are there any possible leaks?

If water has access into the slabs on or below the ground this means that unless full breakout and replacement is undertaken to stop this, then any deck surface waterproofing system must be designed to allow water vapour to escape through the system. Therefore any proposed new deck waterproofing and wearing system must not only be waterproof, but also water vapour permeable, thus allowing the water vapour from below to diffuse through the system and escape by evaporation.

As referenced earlier on this page, in these situations that can sometimes be a problem for basement and ground floor reinforced concrete car park decks, the solution is that either:

- A vapour permeable deck waterproofing and wearing surface system should be selected if this is possible e.g. in new construction and where there is limited traffic and no crack-bridging requirements, as this criteria can only be met with relatively thin-layer coating systems such as Conifloor®-570.

- Or…..

- A suitable impregnation and/or moisture barrier must be applied to the prepared concrete surface, used as an additional priming and pre-sealing surface treatment, such as Sikafloor® EpoCem®, which then enables typical resin-based, water and vapour-tight, resin-based deck waterproofing system build-up to be applied as elsewhere on the parking structure.

Parking Deck Surface Profile – Existing and Required:

What is the condition and surface profile of the existing or new concrete deck surface? If the slab is yet to be placed, then what is the specified concrete finish and profile, plus how is this going to be achieved, as some surface treatments such as wax-based curing agents must be avoided?

Is the concrete surface dry, clean and suitable to accept a new resin waterproofing and wearing surface system, or will it / does it require additional surface preparation to achieve an open textured, sandpaper-like concrete profile that is ideal for the application of resin materials? If additional surface preparation is necessary, as it is for almost ALL new and existing parking deck slabs, then professional vacuum blast cleaning is usually the best method to achieve this and should always be specified for new power float finished concrete decks, as this also removes any surface weakness known as laitance. For more information please refer to the ‘Surface Preparation’ page of this website.

Note: On existing parking decks without a suitably designed deck waterproofing system, frequent vehicular traffic causes mechanical wear and abrasion of the surface over time. Therefore, when the owner realises that a deck surfacing system is necessary to protect their facility and investment for the long-term, the surface preparation will need to be harsher and more aggressive in these areas, leading to increased consumption of the deck waterproofing system’s priming and levelling components of the system build-up, the costs will also increase correspondingly, proving once again that it is always best to do these things properly and get it right first time – Another reason that the Free advice from NCC’s resin flooring experts will always save you both time and money!

Deck Condition and Surface Contamination:

On existing parking decks, and before commencing installation of the deck waterproofing system on new concrete slabs, it is important to check if there has been any oil or liquid chemical exposure, or other spillages on the decks that could adversely affect the adhesion and/or performance of the new resin waterproofing and wearing surface system i.e. check for spillages of automotive fluids including fuels – petrol and diesel, other engine oils and grease, brake and other hydraulic fluids, coolants and ant-freeze solutions, de-icing salts and anything else that people may have helpfully emptied out of their cars and abandoned on your car park decks rather than using appropriate waste disposal….?!

As a result of any such leaks and spillages, accidental or otherwise, is any additional surface pre-cleaning required prior to the vacuum blast cleaning or any other mechanical surface preparation of the concrete……?

Note: Thorough surface cleaning of existing parking decks is always essential prior to their surface preparation by vacuum blast cleaning. This is important and is to ensure that any adverse material spillages are removed and not further distributed across the surface during the works.

Concrete Deck Slab Moisture Content:

In both new and existing concrete decks the moisture content must be at an acceptable level, which is generally defined as not more than 4% parts by weight (pbw), before a new resin surfacing system can be applied. This could be from residual water after hydration in the concrete, water ingress from the ground or water penetration after rainfall; whatever the source, the water must be allowed to evaporate, and the concrete must dry out before the deck coating system is applied.

Alternatively an effective moisture barrier, such as Sikafloor® EpoCem®, should be used to allow the moisture to evaporate over time as water vapour, or alternatively, a surfacing system that is vapour permeable should be installed.

Future Use – Traffic Type and Level:

This is obviously one of the key factors for the deck waterproofing system selection as the degree of exposure to loading and additional stress determines most other performance demands, including what is the intended future type, activity, and level of such traffic in each area and within each deck of the car park? This can effectively be evaluated and summarised for different areas to relate this more easily to developing the necessary deck waterproofing system performance requirements for each areas requirements, levels of loading, exposure, and performance requirements – Such as the following:

  • Pedestrian traffic area only = Low
  • Main Vehicle Aisles and Car Parking Bays = Medium
  • Access Ramps and Turning Circles = High
  • Heavy Delivery Vehicle Parking / Turning & Unloading Areas = Very High

The deck waterproofing and wearing surface system selected must also have an appropriate skid resistance and abrasion resistance that is suitable for the exposure in each of these different areas and that is suitable for maintaining this performance in both wet and dry conditions – according to the anticipated exposure in each area of each deck.

Future Thermal Exposure – i.e. External or Internally Exposed:

Externally exposed parking decks are subject to much greater thermal movement than lower decks due to their wider surface temperature exposure range; from -15 °C up to +40°C is now not uncommon over the full year throughout the UK. This degree of thermal expansion and the resulting thermal movement in the exposed parking decks, means that the deck waterproofing systems for exposed surfaces must be designed to be not just flexible, but also sufficiently flexible to be elastic and crack-bridging to accommodate the flexing and movement of the deck surfaces. This is in addition to the movement accommodated in the defined expansion movement joints.

Note: The use of light-coloured deck waterproofing and wearing surfaces for the externally exposed decks, can significantly reduce ‘heat island effects’ on the whole parking structure. This innovative, but simple approach, also greatly reduces the upper limits / highest surface temperatures reached on the decks in the summer months, which again contributes to less stress and reduced thermal movements, as well as much better customer comfort for users.

Future Chemical Exposure (Water & De-icing salts, Auto fluids etc.):

Car park deck waterproofing and wearing courses, must have a good level of chemical resistance. To determine the level of resistance required for each project, it is useful to check and confirm if each parking deck will be subject to direct exposure to water and de-icing salts, and therefore the potential for freeze-thaw damage and if so to what degree of protection is necessary for the lower vertical surfaces as well as the decks themselves. Whenever cars and other motor vehicles are parked for long periods there is always the possibility for leaks and spillages of their different automotive fluids including fuel – petrol and diesel, engine oils, coolant, and screen wash, etc., plus what is probably the most aggressive chemicals to synthetic resins and coatings – hydraulic oils such as brake fluid. Resistance to these liquids is therefore necessary and the level of resistance to these automotive fluids and any other possible spillages is dependent on the anticipated levels of spillages e.g. this maybe more important for longer term storage areas where seals may fail, and leaks could occur over longer periods without detection and before being cleaned-up etc.

The correct detailing of the waterproofing system around any surface penetrations such as joints and holding down bolts for barriers or equipment is also critical for maintaining this chemical resistance over the entire surface, and to ensure the required system durability with a long service life.

Behaviour in Fire:

There are currently no specific fire resistance or behaviour in fire regulations for car park deck coating systems, but in accordance with normal UK Building Regulations, the applied resin-based, deck waterproofing systems should have a good resistance to the 'surface spread of flame'. In enclosed or underground car parks, there may be additional Building Regulations applied, such as restrictions made on requirements for preventing / restricting any possible fire decomposition products, including the quantities of any toxic fumes that could be released from the systems in the event of fire. Therefore it is always important to check and assess what Building Regulations should be applied for the deck waterproofing systems behaviour in fire, in each of the different areas of each deck and on every project – New and refurbishment, especially when the parking decks are over, adjacent to, or below occupied residential and/or commercial / retail premises.

Colour and Design:

Is there a modern environmental deck colour design scheme in place or can you create one to help establish improved ambience on the parking decks, and to help upgrade and increase levels of light and thereby also security in the car park?

Note: These improvements are usually undertaken in conjunction with lighting upgrades and other user improvements in the parking facility that NCC’s specialist team can also advise and support you with including concrete repairs and resurfacing, wall coatings, soffit coatings, improved signage, and area / zone demarcation e.g. for pedestrians or other areas of restricted / exclusive access etc.

Parking Deck Service Life - Durability - Maintenance:

What is the desired service life and durability of the structure and the deck surfacing to first maintenance? How easy is it to close or restrict access to each area for maintenance purposes and possible re-waterproofing in the future? The durability required, plus the options and possibilities of future closure and maintenance, together with their associated costs are probably the biggest decisions for the car park owner.

Parking Deck Waterproofing System Sustainability:

Sustainability is quite rightly also now becoming an important issue for car park surfacing materials; basically this involves the assessment and reduction of the environmental impact of the systems including their raw materials source, their processing, installation, service life expectancy and their eventual recycling possibility. Sustainability also relates to waste reduction of materials used on site, together with the recycling versus disposal of their packaging.

Waterproofing Penetrations through Car Park Decks:

Any penetrations through the reinforced concrete decks, such as holding down bolts or brackets for barriers, equipment and handrails, plus connections around drainage details, etc. must also be assessed, correctly detailed, and securely sealed to prevent water ingress.

Additionally if you would like help and assistance with your specific project requirements, then please call any of our offices and one of our Resin Floor specialists will be delighted to assist you.

Conclusions and Checklist for a Deck Waterproofing System Selection:

To prepare the right proposals for your Car Park Deck Waterproofing requirements NCC Resin Flooring Site has adapted this summary as a ‘Check List - Car Park Deck Waterproofing Systems Selection Guide’ that you can download and use to identify and define the best procedures and materials for success.

Car Park Deck Movement Joint Sealing Systems

There are different types of joints in car park decks, some of which are relatively easy to accommodate with good extruded joint sealant materials, such as Sikaflex-PRO-3WF, a Polyurethane (PU) joint sealant, which is usually the preferred specialist option for professionals in securely sealing the construction, daywork and isolation joints with relatively low movement on parking structures. A good quality high performance sealant such as the Sikaflex must be used for these, because although the percentage movement is relatively low, this can still be almost continuous in parking decks subject to dynamic traffic loadings and vibrations as well as frequent thermal movement across the structure and throughout the year.

Additionally on parking structures, for many reasons expansion joints in the parking decks can be amongst the most challenging types of floor joints to seal initially, and they are always an area of potential weakness in refurbishment works. On car park decks these trafficked structural movement joints can also be wide and have high movement capability requirements that compound the difficulties in sealing them. When compromises are made without a full risk assessment, the potential for future issues, problems and costs are extremely high for everybody involved.


This is because of the direct exposure to traffic and the other demanding performance requirements and functions, as in addition to accommodating the horizontal floor joint movement from loadings and thermal movement in 1, 2 or 3 planes simultaneously, they must also accommodate impact and abrasion by the vehicular traffic, external exposure to the elements, plus they must be resistant to any automotive fluids that may be spilled including fuels and hydraulic oils etc.

Today these car park deck movement joints can also have another simultaneous function, with an increasingly significant role in providing fire resistance in the structure. Specifically this can be in preventing the spread of any vehicle fire in one section of a deck, up through the decks to reach other parts of the structure and cars, facilities, or people, above and/or below the top and intermediate decks.

So that is all very easy then – to simultaneously accommodate movement, impact and abrasion, provide chemical resistance and act as a fire barrier…..!

These different performance requirements are all important and technically demanding individually. In combination these give significant design and engineering challenges for both new car park design and construction, and for the refurbishment of existing car parking structures, both frequently requiring complex expansion movement joint sealing solutions. Existing car park structures will usually require significant upgrading of the existing expansion joint sealing systems when structural refurbishment is required, and Emseal Movement Joint Systems will usually provide the right solution. So, to do this professionally Emseal have developed a specialised ‘Checklist Approach’ with NCC Movement Joints, which makes total engineering and economic sense for everybody involved.

You can download the NCC-Emseal Project Checklist here: CHECKLIST VIEW / DOWNLOAD
This Checklist is intended to help you make your initial assessment of the requirements and ensure that nothing is left to chance - or to the easiest option for the guys on site that day!

Fir more information and advice in regard to Emseal and other solutions for sealing structural movement joints, there is a specialist page with a lot more information on our sister website focussed on this unique and innovative joint sealing technology. You can check this out here

We hope the car park deck and joint sealing information is of initial interest, for more details you can call us during normal office hours on 01257 266696 Alternatively, you can email us at and we will get back to you asap.